[Mahmud of Ghazni, 997-1030]
The Abbasid Khalifas of Baghdad sought to secure their position from intrigues by employing vigorous young Turks, as a mercenary guard. Ultimately these Turks got the upperhand of their own Masters, and became so influential that they attracted others of their own race from the north in search of wealth.
One such adventure, Altapgin, having the service of his master in northern Persia, penetrated into Afghanistan and set up a small kingdom with its center at Ghazni. In962. Subuktigin, a slave who succeeded him, was the first Muslim to attempt the invasion of India through the lofty northwest passes, used by the Alexander the Great. But though he met and repeatedly defeated Jaipal, the king of the Punjab, and he did not follow up his victories.
Ghazni wage a ‘Jihad’ each year, against the idolaters of Hindustan.
His son Mahmud, who besides possessing his father’s energy and spirit was a Muslim fanatic, succeeded Subuktigin in 997. Elated by the Khalifa’s blessing on his succession, he there and then resolved to wage a ‘Jihad’ each year, against the idolaters of Hindustan. It is calculated that between the years 1000 and 1026 he raided India seventeen times traversing the ground between the Indus and Ganges. Nevertheless, from him we learn that, in his day, he slew thousands of Hindus as took crowds of slaves. The lure of loot made good fighters of his men. On one occasion he stormed the fortress of Kangra [Nagarkot] where the Hindu forefathers kept their wealth and thus came into the possession of immense stores of treasure and jewels. Muslim annalists say, the spoils Ghazni took with him to Ghazni must have been colossal.
Thus again and again, Ghazni swept over the plains of Hindustan, conquering, Kings and their castles, razing temples and smashing ideals, until he became the terror of countryside.
It is surprising, that he earned such titles as Ghazi,” Victor” and “Idol Breaker”.
Ghazni looted Somnath Temple Golden Gate.
His crowing achievement was the capture of Somnath, in Gujrat, 1025-26. It is told on those days Lakh of pilgrims used to assemble at its costly temple. Its fame wealth of its Gems enticed Mahmud to make the exhausting march across the Rajaputana desert from Multan. To the dumb amazement of its protectors he sacked the place, carrying off to Ghazni the famous Golden Gates of the temple and treasure worth one million pounds sterling. The Ghazni dynasty was short lived.
Afghan Highlanders from Ghor [between Ghazni and Herat], overthrown Ghazni by fierce, who in pursuance of a feud sacked Ghazni.